It is therefore unsurprising that, irrespective of intended application, few such geological models exist in the Alps; those that do are generally very large in scale, and therefore limited in detail.Furthermore, the resultant datasets themselves are rarely made available as to the broad, interdisciplinary community who could potentially benefit from them.Tags: Essays From Contemporary Culture 5th Edition OnlineEssay My Parents DivorceMedical Transcription Cover Letter Entry LevelPersonal Essays For Middle School StudentsSeparation Of Church And State Research PaperSpm Essay About A True FriendshipDiscrimination Appearance EssaySalvador Dali EssayWhy Is Walmart Bad For America EssayCompare And Contrast Essay On Art History
flow would be broadly parallel to the strata (and so highly anisotropic).
It follows that in folded settings, anticlines – assuming normal orientation – typically act as regional groundwater divides, with synclines conversely representing locations of accumulation; on one hand they may act as preferential pathway permitting flow across the strata, including enabling formations that would otherwise be considered aquicludes to be bypassed, but on the other, their offsets can disconnect aquifers.
Finally, models must be spatially extensive enough to capture any proven or hypothesised subsurface connections; such connections can function over distances of up to several kilometres, and are capable of importing or exporting water across topographical boundaries.
Despite the improving capabilities of 3D modelling software and a large body of existing geological data pertaining to the Alps, these combined requirements (for geological models to be detailed, high-resolution, accurate, and spatially-extensive) continue to represent substantial technical and computational challenges to model development.
Developing a model with high spatial resolution, meanwhile, might involve employing a fine (e.g.
cell size ≤ 10 m) Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to define the topographic surface, and/or using a sufficient density of georeferenced points to closely replicate the shapes of observed geological features.
Certain applications, such as understanding the influence of bedrock geology on hydrology in complex mountainous settings, demand 3D geological models that are detailed, high-resolution, accurate, and spatially-extensive.
However, developing models with these characteristics remains challenging.
The entire sequences have been folded, fractured, and faulted into complex geometrical arrangements by tectonic forces.
Since well-karstified limestones are several orders of magnitude more permeable than marls and shales, the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity within these sequences can be considerable.