The Concept Of Monophyly A Speculative Essay

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In the theory of natural selection as currently conceived, there is both a chance component and a non-random component.

Genetic variation is seen as developing randomly, by chance, such as through mutations or genetic recombination.

However, even today, this theory remains controversial, with detractors in both the scientific and religious communities.

Main articles: Speciation and Species The concepts of speciation and extinction are important to any understanding of evolutionary theory.

Thus, chance (stochastic processes, randomness) also plays a major role in the theory of natural selection.

According to the theory of natural selection, natural selection is the directing or creative force of evolution.Mayr (2002) states that the production of genetic variation "is almost exclusively a chance phenomena." In every generation, new mutations and recombinations arise spontaneously, producing a new spectrum of phenotypes for natural selection—a non-random selective force (Mayr 2002)—to act upon.However, Mayr (2002) also notes that chance plays an important role even in "the process of the elimination of less fit individuals," and particularly during periods of mass extinction.A popular definition along these lines is that offered by Douglas J.Futuyma (1986) in Evolutionary Biology: "Biological evolution…is change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual….Speciation is the term that refers to creation of new and distinct biological species by branching off from the ancestral population.Various mechanisms have been presented whereby a single evolutionary lineage splits into two or more genetically independent lineages.This theory encompasses both minor changes in gene frequency in populations, brought about by the creative force of natural selection, and major evolutionary changes brought about through natural selection, such as the origin of new designs.For Darwin, however, the term natural selection generally was used synonymously with evolution by natural selection.The validity of making such extrapolations has recently been challenged by some prominent evolutionists.The theory of natural selection received a much more contentious response than did the theory of descent with modification.

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  • Monophyletic, Polyphyletic, & Paraphyletc Taxa
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    Concepts of monopoly, polyphyly, & paraphyly. A taxon pl. taxa is any group of organisms that is given a formal taxonomic name. Loosely, a monophyletic.…

  • From Australopithecus to Homo the transition that wasn't.
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    This essay is predicated on two arguments. First, the idea that a 'major transition' from Australopithecus to Homo is moot, pending significant new additions to the record. Biologists nearly universally agree that monophyly is the one. the evidence is still far too sketchy to move beyond such speculation.…

  • Evidence of evolution - New World Encyclopedia
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    However, the term evolution often is used with narrower meanings. It is not. The concept of monophyly A speculative essay. Biology and.…

  • Origin and evolution of eukaryotic compartmentalization
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    Complexity may have been built remain mostly in the area of speculative ideas. the idea of an organism being engulfed by another to explain the origin. distinct phylogenetic groups and Eukaryotes to form a third monophyletic clade. In their. Theodosius Dobzhansky in his much-celebrated essay in 1973 ”Nothing in.…

  • La Historia de la Vida ¿Un. - Geoscience Research Institute
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    Con esta idea Darwin proponía el concepto de monofilia u origen monofilético para todos los organismos. The concept of monophyly a speculative essay.…

  • Evolution - New World Encyclopedia
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    Broadly defined, biological evolution is any heritable change in a population of organisms. The concept of monophyly A speculative essay.…

  • Evolutionary taxonomy - Wikipedia
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    Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of. The idea was popularised in the English-speaking world by the speculative but widely read Vestiges of the. As an example, amphibians are monophyletic under evolutionary taxonomy, since they have arisen from fishes only once.…

  • Polychaeta, Annelida, and Articulata are not monophyletic.
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    Annelida and Polychaeta were reaffirmed to be non-monophyletic because of the. Consequently, the hypotheses presented below reinforce the idea that some scale. of secondary reductions of cephalic appendages sound speculative, they may be. Essays on polychaetous annelids in memory of Dr. Olga Hartman.…

  • A formal analysis of phylogenetic terminology - Archive.
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    Meaning of the term “monophyly” rather than the redefined Hennigian one. I identify. Cladism, as a kind of nominalism, categorically forbids speculation about entities considered. Species New Interdisciplinary Essays.…

  • The origins of species concepts
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    Philosophical speculation and analysis of scientific concepts, and particularly of. a sortal concept Essay Bk III, ch III §15, the obverse of a general concept. Monophyly is the state of being all taxa in a cladograms that are separated.…

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