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I found and will review in brief some of the extensive research from Tinto to the present, including the basic criticisms therein.I will further explain the steps some colleges are currently taking to counteract this increasingly important issue.
First, the school district must acknowledge the link between low performing, high poverty urban schools with severe student misbehavior.
Once acknowledged, the district's role should primarily focus on adequately staffing each school per specific needs, i.e.
Little or no research was conducted on student attrition prior to Tinto, and every piece of research I found contained several references to him and his work.
Ishitani and Des Jardins claim that the majority of research on the subject has been based on Tinto’s model (7), as does Metz in his research review (4).
The first step towards tackling the issue of severe student misbehavior is for the professional education community to agree upon a common understanding of the problem, itself.
In other words, rather than ask "how" students act out, we must realize "why" they act out, in the first place.Tinto primarily utilizes the chapter entitled “Initiation Rites” in his model, a chapter in which van Gennep claims “that physiological puberty and ‘social puberty’ are essentially different” (Gennep 65).Tinto sees the transition from high school to college as a form of this “social puberty.” Tinto further argues that the maturation process is “marked by three distinct phases or stages, each with its own specialized ceremonies and rituals…[e]ach serv[ing] to move individuals from youthful participation to full adult membership in society” (Tinto 92).This question has obviously hit a "chord" out there since I've received many responses from readers over the past few days, and I'm looking foward to sharing them next week (there's still time to contribute! I've been a teacher for last ten years at a public comprehensive high school with a student population that is one-hundred-percent eligible for free breakfast and lunch.In Part Three of this series, I'll be sharing what I think makes our school such an inviting place for educators and students alike -- we have many challenges, but teacher attrition is not one of them.In my professional experience, severe student misbehavior, particularly within high poverty urban public schools, is often a result of academic struggles.In addition, students who aren't proficient in coping with social trauma, or economic disadvantages, also have a tendency to "misbehave." In other words, students misbehave, or "act out", mainly out of frustration. Once we have a common understanding as to why students misbehave, then we can re-calibrate our efforts during the school day.Instead, it needs to be consistent, engaging, practical, and timely.For example, social-emotional training must be offered during pre-service week, weekly collaborative meetings, and district-level sponsored professional development days.Metz, however, goes on to assert that Tinto’s main source was a certain Rites of Passage, by Arnold van Gennep.Focusing on the anthropological perspective of human “rites of passage,” van Gennep’s study elucidates the basic human nature behind much of the college experience.