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In general, females scored much higher than did the male coaches.A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three levels of coaching (junior high, high school, and college) with regard to leadership behavior in general.The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors.
The instrument utilized was the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS) developed by Zhang, Jensen, and Mann in 1996.
This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, positive feedback, and situational consideration.
Following the information on threats to internal validity, the student provided suggestions regarding how these threats could have been dealt with. Not only does the student know what the weakness of the study are, he provides ways the study could have been improved. Investigating leadership, gender, and coaching level using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale. The purpose of the study was to determine possible differences in leadership behaviors, using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS), between male and female coaches and among different coaching levels. The first hypothesis was that male and female coaches would respond differently to the RLSS in overall leadership behaviors.
One thing that was not discussed in this paper is the literature review. The second hypothesis was that differences on the RLSS would occur among coaching levels: junior high, high school, and college.
The sample number for junior high coaches, in particular, is rather low.
A larger sample with regard to all categories would have aided in the data analysis, particularly when looking for possible interactions between gender and coaching level.Once again, a better analysis method could have been chosen based on the nature of the data collected. The ecological generaliziability for the study is fairly high.The surveys were mailed out, and returned on a volunteer basis.Here is a really good example of a scholary research critique written by a student in EDRS 6301.The student who submitted this paper last semester earned a 100 on his critique. A succint summary is provided in the first paragraph.Again, because the data for the RLSS is ordinal, an ANOVA is not the best analysis tool.The three coaching levels scored differently on three of the six behaviors: democratic behaviors, training and instruction, and social support.Junior high coaches also demonstrated a lesser degree of social support than either the high school or college coaches.A MANOVA was again used to analyze the data for any interaction between gender and coaching level with regard to overall leadership behavior.There was no information, however, regarding the validity of the RLSS.A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female coaches with regard to leadership behaviors.