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All of the gases we will deal with in this lesson obey the ideal gas law with errors no larger than about 1% and in most cases much less than this.Top of page The two most common problems you will be asked to solve using the Ideal Gas Law are problems involving a single set of conditions and problems involving a set of initial conditions and a change in one or more of the variables. ” An example of the second type of problem might be: “A sample of gas exerts a pressure of 1.0 atm at a temperature of 250 K in a 250 m L container.The Ideal Gas Law can easily be reduced to Charles’, Boyle’s, or Avogadro’s Law.
Rather than remember all of the possible relationships between P, V, n, and T, and have to deal with a host of different “constants,” it would be nice to have a single relationship with a constant of proportionality that was really constant; that is, one whose value did not depend on what the other parameters’ values were.
The Ideal Gas Law | Using the Ideal Gas Law All of these relationships can be combined into a single law called the “Ideal Gas Law.” This law, which applies to gases whose behavior follows the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory, relates pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas by the equation PV = n RT.
The symbol “R” in this equation is a constant called “the gas constant” and its value can be computed by measuring the temperature, volume, and pressure of a known quantity of an ideal gas and substituting these values into the Ideal Gas Law solved for R.
In fact, this is the bases of the laboratory exercise for this lesson.
What will the pressure become if the gas is heated to 350 K and the volume is increased to 500 m L?
” For problems of the first type, all you need to do is to solve the Ideal Gas Law for the variable whose value you are trying to find, then substitute values for the other known variables and compute the answer. If you’re a little rusty, it might be a good idea to review the techniques used to solve simple algebraic equations.In the last section we saw that Charles’ Law relates the volume of a gas to its temperature; Boyle’s Law relates volume to pressure; and Avogadro’s Law relates volume to the number of moles of gas present, as well as a number of other relationships between P, V, n, and T.In particular, we saw that volume is directly proportional to the temperature (in Kelvins!Our answer will be in units of liters because those are the volume units for this value of the gas constant.Now, substituting the values of n, R, T, and P into the solved equation, we find that the volume is 8.6 liters.First, solving the ideal gas law for V involves a little basic algebra.Simply divide both sides by P and the equation becomes V = n RT/P.In it, you will measure n, T, P, and V for a sample of hydrogen gas, then use these values to compute the value of the gas constant, R.The actual value of R will depend on the units that you use for P and V (n is always in moles and T in Kelvins).This means that most gases behave ideally to about two significant digits.In practice, gases whose behavior deviates from the ideal gas law by more than about 1% are typically those with large, multi-atom molecules (say, ten atoms or more) or medium-sized molecules capable of hydrogen bonding.