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It doesn’t matter why people start, the main thing here is to get help at the right time and not to ruin their life and health.
The DSD Working Papers on Research Security series seeks to address this deficit by examining a range of research security concerns, providing a framework to help those working in the region consider how they can enhance their own safety as well as the safety of their associates and research participants.
The DSD Program is funded by the Open Society Foundations.
This review will describe briefly the history of prescription stimulants, their prevalence of misuse among emerging adults , and potential negative consequences. Methylphenidate was first created in 1944 as part of a search for a non-addictive stimulant, and it was suggested as a means of regulating children's behavior in 1963, to control "hyperkinesis" .
Eventually such problematic behavior among children became labeled as "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (ADHD; ).
ADHD refers to a constellation of dysfunctions that hinder attention regulation, motor behavior, impulsivity, emotional expression, and planning .
By 1970, 15 different pharmaceutical companies manufactured over 30 kinds of prescription stimulant-type products.Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts.Prescription stimulants that have been used non-medically/illegally often have been referred to as "study drugs" or "cramming drugs," and sometimes "kiddy coke." Methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) is the most widely misused and researched of these drugs and has been referred to as "Vitamin R", "Skippy", "the Smart Drug", "Smarties", "Poor Man's Cocaine", "West Coast", and "R Ball" [1–4].Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications.Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education.Eventually a very large ADHD drug market developed, which has been dominated by stimulants.These currently include methylphenidate (brand names: Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Methylin, Methylin ER, Metadate, Metadate ER, Concerta), demethylphenidate (brand name: Focalin) and amphetamine preparations including D-amphetamine (brand names: Dexedrine, Spansule, Dextrostat), methamphetamine (brand name: Desoxyn) and D, L-amphetamine (brand names: Adderall, Adderall XL).First of all, drug taking causes elevation of dopamine level in brain, which results in the feeling of pleasure. So, the drug a person takes eventually reaches the significance that other physiological needs have.As a result, the person’s abilities to think clearly, control behavior, exercise good judgment and feel well without drugs intake becomes affected.It is absolutely necessary to prevent drug addiction levels’ raise, and it is necessary for all the people to take part in this prevention program. Edited by Enrique Desmond Arias Over the last generation, activists, journalists, and researchers working in Latin America have increasingly faced the challenge of operating in areas affected by chronic police and non-state violence.