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Peirce applied randomization in the Peirce-Jastrow experiment on weight perception. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights.
More advanced statistical modeling can be used to adapt the inference to the sampling method.
At the end of the experiment, the experimenter finds differences between the Experimental group and the Control group.
Because each participant had an equal chance of being placed in any group, it is unlikely the differences could be attributable to some other preexisting attribute of the participant, e.g. Random assignment does not guarantee that the groups are matched or equivalent.
Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment (e.g., a treatment group versus a control group) using randomization, such as by a chance procedure (e.g., flipping a coin) or a random number generator.
This ensures that each participant or subject has an equal chance of being placed in any group.