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The best alternative for successful drug delivery to an affected area of skin is elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin via channel-like structures.Moreover, they are too small – in the nanometer size range – to be detected by the immune system; furthermore, they can deliver the drug to the target site using lower drug doses in order to reduce side effects often experienced by topical routes by passing the complexity of the skin structure.A skin disease like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone once in their lifetime.
Niosomes are unilamellar or multilamellar nonionic surfactant vesicles formed from synthetic nonionic surfactants by hydration, offering an alternative to liposomes.
Niosomes are advantageous from a technical point of view as they possess greater stability and avoid some disadvantages associated with liposomes such as variable purity of phospholipids and high cost.
The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 m V; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively.
The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 µg/cm, respectively.
Material and methods Materials Tretinoin was procured ex gratis from Shalaks Pharmaceutical, New Delhi, India, while BPO was gifted by the H. Isopropanol was obtained from the Central Drug House (P) Ltd, carbopol 934 from Hi-media Laboratories PVT Ltd, Mumbai, India, and phosphotungstic acid from the Central Drug House (P) Ltd.
All other materials and chemicals were of analytical grade.The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae.One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures.Accepted for publication 4 September 2014 Published 24 December 2014 Volume 20(1) Pages 171—182 DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S70449 Checked for plagiarism Yes Review by Single-blind Peer reviewer comments 2 Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime.The vesicles serve as a soluble matrix and also serve as a local depot for sustained drug release; permeation enhancers of dermally active compounds; or a rate-limiting membrane barrier for the modulation of systemic absorption of drugs via dermal drug delivery.Here, Span 60 and cholesterol were selected as components of niosomes with BPO and tretinoin as model drugs for niosomal formulation.An in vitro permeation and retention study of BPO and tretinoin from niosomal gels were performed.Comparative antiacne activity of cream and niosomal gels was further evaluated by using a rabbit ear pinna model and we evaluated the impact of the niosome vesicle in drug delivery at the targeted site. Span 60 and oleic acid were obtained from SD Fine Chemicals Limited, Mumbai, India, and cholesterol was obtained from Central Drug House (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India.These particulate carriers have been extensively studied as drug carriers in topical drug delivery.These carriers are advantageous because they increase drug stability, enhance therapeutic effects, prolong circulation time in a biological environment, and promote the uptake of the entrapped drugs into the target site while drug toxicity is diminished due to a reduction in nonspecific tissue uptake.