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Using the lophotrochozoan tree as a reference, the time of divergence between B. philippinarum was estimated to be around 110.4 million years ago (Ma), with a 95% confidence interval of 52.4–209.7 Ma (Fig.2b), which is close to the upper age limit of deep-sea symbiotic mussels (102 Ma) previously estimated using five genes.1b) in the family Mytilidae using a whole-genome shotgun approach and compared their features ( Supplementary Note 1). The deep-sea and shallow-water mussel genome contained 96.3% and 93.7% complete and partial universal single-copy metazoan orthologous genes, respectively, indicating the completeness of the assembly and gene models ( Supplementary Note 6).
The scale bar indicates 0.05 expected substitutions per site.
d, Phylogenetic tree of Mytilidae based on transcriptome data from representative genera/species.
platifrons, indicating adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. platifrons is considerably more complex than that of other lophotrochozoan species, including M.
philippinarum, with substantial expansion and high expression levels of gene families that are related to immune recognition, endocytosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in the gill, revealing presumed genetic adaptation of the deep-sea mussel to the presence of its chemoautotrophic endosymbionts.
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To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer).platifrons are the HSP70 family (179 proteins) and the ABC transporters (393 proteins).HSP70 is important for protein folding, and thus high expression of these genes in the gill ( Supplementary Fig.Owing to their ecological importance and remarkable biological characteristics, including their ability to survive an extended period under atmospheric pressure We sequenced the genomes of both B.platifrons Hashimoto and Okutani, 1994 (a deep-sea mussel, Fig. philippinarum (Hanley, 1843) (a shallow-water mussel, Fig. philippinarum (2.38 Gb), mainly because it has fewer repeats, particularly the Helitron-transposable elements and unclassified repeats that together contributed a 707 Mb difference between the two genomes ( Supplementary Note 9). philippinarum scaffolds and contigs was 100.2 Kb and 19.7 Kb, respectively.Comparisons among five molluscan genomes revealed 6,883 shared protein domains and 474 protein domains unique to B. 2a and Supplementary Table 14).a, Venn diagram showing the number of shared and unique Pfam functional domains in five molluscan species.b, Divergence times of 11 lophotrochozoan species with error bars (purple lines) indicating the 95% confidence interval, and the event of gene family expansions (red) and contractions (blue) analysed by counting Pfam domains.A follow-up metaproteomic analysis of the gill of B.platifrons shows methanotrophy, assimilatory sulfate reduction and ammonia metabolic pathways in the symbionts, providing energy and nutrients, which allow the host to thrive.But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments.Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum).