Methane Chemosynthesis

Methane Chemosynthesis-88
Using the lophotrochozoan tree as a reference, the time of divergence between B. philippinarum was estimated to be around 110.4 million years ago (Ma), with a 95% confidence interval of 52.4–209.7 Ma (Fig.2b), which is close to the upper age limit of deep-sea symbiotic mussels (102 Ma) previously estimated using five genes.1b) in the family Mytilidae using a whole-genome shotgun approach and compared their features ( Supplementary Note 1). The deep-sea and shallow-water mussel genome contained 96.3% and 93.7% complete and partial universal single-copy metazoan orthologous genes, respectively, indicating the completeness of the assembly and gene models ( Supplementary Note 6).

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The scale bar indicates 0.05 expected substitutions per site.

d, Phylogenetic tree of Mytilidae based on transcriptome data from representative genera/species.

platifrons, indicating adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. platifrons is considerably more complex than that of other lophotrochozoan species, including M.

philippinarum, with substantial expansion and high expression levels of gene families that are related to immune recognition, endocytosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in the gill, revealing presumed genetic adaptation of the deep-sea mussel to the presence of its chemoautotrophic endosymbionts.

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To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer).platifrons are the HSP70 family (179 proteins) and the ABC transporters (393 proteins).HSP70 is important for protein folding, and thus high expression of these genes in the gill ( Supplementary Fig.Owing to their ecological importance and remarkable biological characteristics, including their ability to survive an extended period under atmospheric pressure We sequenced the genomes of both B.platifrons Hashimoto and Okutani, 1994 (a deep-sea mussel, Fig. philippinarum (Hanley, 1843) (a shallow-water mussel, Fig. philippinarum (2.38 Gb), mainly because it has fewer repeats, particularly the Helitron-transposable elements and unclassified repeats that together contributed a 707 Mb difference between the two genomes ( Supplementary Note 9). philippinarum scaffolds and contigs was 100.2 Kb and 19.7 Kb, respectively.Comparisons among five molluscan genomes revealed 6,883 shared protein domains and 474 protein domains unique to B. 2a and Supplementary Table 14).a, Venn diagram showing the number of shared and unique Pfam functional domains in five molluscan species.b, Divergence times of 11 lophotrochozoan species with error bars (purple lines) indicating the 95% confidence interval, and the event of gene family expansions (red) and contractions (blue) analysed by counting Pfam domains.A follow-up metaproteomic analysis of the gill of B.platifrons shows methanotrophy, assimilatory sulfate reduction and ammonia metabolic pathways in the symbionts, providing energy and nutrients, which allow the host to thrive.But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments.Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum).

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Comments Methane Chemosynthesis

  • Chemosynthesis Definition and Examples - ThoughtCo
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    Chemosynthesis is the conversion of carbon compounds and other molecules into organic this biochemical reaction, methane or an inorganic compound, such as hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen gas, is oxidized to act as the energy source.…

  • Scientists Discover Massive Methane-Based Ecosystem Popular Science
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    Scientists Discover Massive Methane-Based Ecosystem. Mussels can survive in seeps through chemosynthesis, a process that utilizes bacteria in their gills to turn methane into energy.…

  • Chemosynthetic Ecosystems Coastal and Marine Laboratory
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    Chemosynthetic Ecosystems. Chemosynthesis is the conversion of carbon usually carbon dioxide or methane into organic matter using inorganic molecules hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide or methane as an energy source. Most energy is initially derived from sunlight via plant photosynthesis.…

  • Gas That Makes a Mountain Breathe Fire Is Turning Up Around the World.
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    In some instances, chemosynthesis also produces amino acids, the building blocks of life. With the new tools designed to study Earth’s subsurface, researchers can determine whether methane came.…

  • Methane clathrate - Wikipedia
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    Methane clathrate CH 4 5.75H 2 O or 4CH 4 23H 2 O, also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound more specifically, a clathrate hydrate in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.…

  • What is the difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
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    Other bacteria make organic matter by reducing sulfide or oxidizing methane. Our knowledge of chemosynthetic communities is relatively new, brought to light by ocean exploration when humans first observed a vent on the deep ocean floor in 1977 and found a thriving community where there was no light.…

  • Chemosynthesis - Wikipedia
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    In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules usually carbon dioxide or methane and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.…

  • What is Chemosynthesis? with pictures -
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    Chemosynthesis also takes place in more familiar places. For example, in the soil, nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites and nitrates, while methane-generating archaea can be found in marshes and swamps, in sewage and in the intestines of mammals. Importance and Possible Uses…

  • Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis - Te Ara
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    Chemosynthesis occurs around hydrothermal vents and methane seeps in the deep sea where sunlight is absent. During chemosynthesis, bacteria living on the sea floor or within animals use energy stored in the chemical bonds of hydrogen sulfide and methane to make glucose from water and carbon dioxide dissolved in sea water.…

  • Chemosynthesis - Definition, Equation & Quiz Biology Dictionary
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    Chemosynthesis allows organisms to live without using the energy of sunlight or relying on other organisms for food. Like chemosynthesis, it allows living things to make more of themselves. By turning inorganic molecules into organic molecules, the processes of chemosynthesis turn nonliving matter into living matter.…

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