However, we ran additional analyses including these countries as robustness checks.
However, we ran additional analyses including these countries as robustness checks.Tags: Ucla Thesis ProquestProblem Solving ToolkitStudy Skills Essay WritingHistory And Generation Of Computer AssignmentResearch Papers Compiler DesignAllama Iqbal University AssignmentsAp English Language Synthesis Essay Question
During the same period, age-standardized mean BMI increased from 25.8 to 26.4 kg/m Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.
Note: The figure illustrates the positive correlation between changes in age-standardized mean BMI and changes in the number of annual fast food transactions per capita between 1999 and 2008.
Data on per capita fast food transactions were taken from Euromonitor’s Passport Global Market Information Database (GMID), 2012 edition.
The data comprise industry records of annual sales of meals and refreshments delivered in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores (Appendix A, available at:
The index is calculated as the mean of 10 subcomponents measuring different aspects of economic freedom, as determined from national laws and regulations as well as written questionnaires completed by experts and investors (Appendix C, available at:
We included in our analyses several potential confounders of the association between fast food and BMI: gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (expressed logarithmically in constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity for comparability between countries); the proportion of the population living in urban areas; national population size; openness to trade (imports and exports as a percentage of GDP); foreign direct investment (FDI, or net inflows as a percentage of GDP); and a time-invariant (2008) measure of motor vehicles per 1000 people.
Although data on BMI are reported separately for men and women, we developed an overall indicator by estimating the female to male ratio using the proportion of female population from the World Development Indicators from 1999 to 2008., which is based on a scale from 1 to 100.
The score indicates the extent to which a country has adopted market deregulation policies.
Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group; Table 2 presents the results of multivariate panel analyses in which age-standardized mean BMI was the dependent variable.
Fast food consumption was positively and significantly associated with BMI (unadjusted : 0.0657; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.0433–0.0881).