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The most common level for DS is L4-L5 followed by L5-S1, with anterolisthesis being most common at L4-L5 and retrolisthesis more common in L5-S1 and in individuals with reduced lordosis.This chapter aims to provide the best imaging strategy in obtaining the DS diagnosis.
However, functional imaging is still widely used and the body of literature regarding DS “instability,” and how to best image it, is extensive, which is why this subject will be briefly covered here.
Details regarding clinical evaluation of symptomatology are covered in Section 15 Chapter 1 of this publication.
When the symptomatology and physical examination points to DS, radiological imaging is then used to confirm the diagnosis and possibly also advise regarding the clinical relevance of the DS in relation to other radiological findings.
Schematic illustration of measurement technique to estimate the degree of sagittal translation.
In sagittal view a line is drawn along the superior endplate of the inferior vertebra (A).