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More fruitful approaches focus more on politics’ second level: (1) constitutional change. Staying secure, staying poor: the ‘Faustian Bargain’. That the game’s rules must also change becomes the foundational of three additional concepts used to consider postcolonialism’s strengths and limits in tackling global poverty. Emerging views, like ‘inclusive liberalism’ (Craig and Porter, 2006) and ‘postneoliberalism’ (Bebbington and Bebbington, 2010), combine the best and avoid the worst of both general approaches.
Powerful international actors define and evaluate development, impacting actions taken and conclusions reached. will determine what practical actions may be taken.
In turn, the sorts of actions selected determine who is authorized to act, who shall wield power, and, consequently, who shall not” (Yapa, 1996: 719). Global Poverty: Development Ethics Meets Global Justice.
The past exists within the present, the colonizer within the colonized, and so on (Hall, 1996). The section begins with three themes common to the postcolonial critique of development (discourse and representation, context, and structure) followed by common criticisms.
It concludes with the final three concepts mentioned at the outset — concepts that explain why postcolonialism is a necessary approach to development despite challenges. Postcolonialism deconstructs development discourses because they are “unconsciously ethnocentric, rooted in European cultures and reflective of a dominant western world-view” (Mc Ewan, 2001: 94). Globalization and the politics of poverty alleviation in the South.
In societies divided by antagonistic principles of legitimacy, democracy cannot cordon off its own values and institutions from contestation without opening itself up to claims of arbitrariness and violence. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86(4): 707-728.
In these situations, politics will need to be played out at two levels: first, within the confines of the democratic game and secondly, at the level of the constitutional principles of the game itself. Though Muldoon studies state-level politics, the idea that politics is carried out at two levels applies, mutandis mutandis, globally.
can be quarantined from its present, and then transformed to build a progressive future” (Shrestha, 1997: 711).
Context also combines with (mis)representation whereby discourses punish and reward certain players based on their status in a given area.
Fundamentally, broad development remains elusive because it fails to challenge the rules of the global ‘game’.
Rules enforced by neoliberal interests cannot accommodate more adequate forms of poverty definition and reduction.