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Stress is linked to physical problems like high blood pressure, heart disease, headaches, and can also cause long-term psychological effects (D. Research indicates that stress management leads to a stressor reduction and improves individual well-being (Kohler & Munz, 2006). A study analyzing the effects of two stress-reduction interventions on physically inactive employees showed that physical exercise improved the feeling of well-being and decreased muscle pain. In addition, stress management training lead to improved coping ability and had positive effects on lifestyle and health behavior (Gronningter, Hytten, Skauli, & Christensen, 1992).
If you have any questions about this course, about stress management in general, or about other services offered by the Mountain State Centers for Independent Living, contact the center nearest you.Another meta-analysis of 37 studies involving 1,837 participants showed that stress-inoculation techniques significantly reduced anxiety and enhanced job performance (Saunders, Driskell, Johnston, & Salas, as cited in D. Positive effects on lifestyle and health behavior The second advantage of stress management programs is its beneficial effects to the lifestyle and health behaviors of workers. Stress can be considered as a major health problem in today’s society (Yates, 1979). Therefore, stress should be seen as both a health and safety hazard since it affects the worker’s health negatively (CUPE, 2003). The management of an organization can contribute in two ways to the failure of occupational stress management. bank tellers showed that the most important factor in stress tolerance was self-efficacy (Schaubroeck, Lam, & Kie, 2000, as cited in D. An additional study provides evidence of individual differences in stress response. This leads to the assumption that even the best stress management program might affect certain individuals in a different way and therefore demonstrates a limitation of occupational stress management. The HRM can contribute to the avoidance of qualitative or quantitative work overload and underload which therefore reduces stress. A HRM can be responsible for giving stress management training sessions, implementing stress management interventions, and selecting training institutions, according to scientist guidelines. Conclusion In view of a changing environment, organizations are facing new challenges. Firstly, a difficulty for implementing a stress management program can be the lack of superior support. According to the Canadian Union of Public Employees (2003), factors such as bad management style can be seen as leading causes of stress and therefore contribute to the failure of occupational stress management. Managers who had a high level of internal control, which means they believe that job performance is under their control, were significantly less affected by stress than those who had a high level in external control (Daniels & Guppy, 1994, as cited in D. The role of the Human Resource Manager towards stress management The following paragraph, will demonstrate the role of a Human Resource Manager towards occupational stress management. By working together with the management of an organization and enriching, enlarging, and expanding job tasks, the HRM is able to provide greater responsibility and decision-making authority, which reduces work related stress (D. Preparing employees for necessary changes, training them, and providing the necessary support can be an additional role of a HRM (D. Moreover, a HRM can train the supervisors in empathy and concern for subordinates and thereby increasing social support, which can reduce personal vulnerability to stress effects (D. According to the main principle, “If you do not go forwards, you go backwards” (Sauter, Hurrell, Scharf, & Sinclair, 2003, p. Due to the increase in workload, psychological problems related to occupational stress have increased rapidly in Western countries (van der Klink, Roland, & Blonk, 2001). More than ever before, job stress has become a hazard to the health of employees and in turn the health of organizations (Sauter, Hurrell, Scharf, & Sinclair, 2003). Retrieved November 11, 2008, from EBSCOhost Database. The purpose of this research paper is to illustrate the overall importance of stress management in the workplace. According to Cotton (1990), stress management is concerned with identifying and analyzing problems that are related to stress, and applying a variety of therapeutic techniques to change either the source of stress or the experience of stress. Stress management educates the worker about the nature and sources of stress, the effects of stress on health, and personal skills in order to reduce stress (Sauter, Hurrell, Scharf, & Sinclair, 2003). Organizational techniques include emotional climate control, social support, redefinition of employee roles, and elimination of work overload and work underload. The main objective of stress management is to help the employee to function at an optimal level (Cotton, 1990) by improving the ability of the workers to cope with difficult work situations (NIOSH, 2003 Two advantages of stress management Positive impacts on the organization The following paragraph will highlight the beneficial effects of occupational stress management on organizational success. Stress management techniques consist of organizational or individual techniques (D. Individual techniques comprise physical exercise, time-management, relaxation exercises, assertiveness training, biofeedback and behavior modification (D. Research has shown that occupational stress management has several positive impacts on employee’s stress response, and therefore contributes to organizational success (Kohler & Munz, 2006). Research by Kohler and Munz (2006) indicated that a comprehensive stress management program improves the well-being of employees and contributes to organizational effectiveness. A meta-analysis by Richardson and Rothstein (2008) proved that cognitive-behavioral stress interventions helped workers to promote successful responses to stress. Improved Health and Coping by Physical Exercise or Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Training in a work environment. Retrieved November 12, 2008, from EBSCOhost database. Stress can be considered as costly to organizations because high stress is related to a decrease in job satisfaction, lower productivity, reduced motivation, increased errors, accidents, counterproductive behavior, and decline in turnover (D. Employees who are satisfied with their job are more productive, show pro-social behavior, and have a lower absenteeism and lower turnover rate (D. Murphy and Sorensen (1988) studied the impact of relaxation training and biofeedback on absenteeism rate, and found a decrease of absenteeism in the following year (Reynolds & Brinner, 1994). To sum up, stress management can contribute to the organizational success by improving the well-being of an employee, enhancing the coping mechanism, reducing absenteeism, and improving job performance.