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Evergreen species provide year-round protection; however, as long as foliage is present in the seasons of bare soil surfaces, the effect of deciduous trees may be adequate.Cover crops such as legumes plant, white turnip, radishes and other species are rotated with cash crops to blanket the soil year-round and act as green manure that replenishes nitrogen and other critical nutrients. Soil-conservation farming involves no-till farming, "green manures" and other soil-enhancing practices.Salinity in soil is caused by irrigating with salty water.
The continuous high level of the water table led to soil salination.
Use of humic acids may prevent excess salination, especially given excessive irrigation.
Such farming methods attempt to mimic the biology of barren lands.
They can revive damaged soil, minimize erosion, encourage plant growth, eliminate the use of nitrogen fertilizer or fungicide, produce above-average yields and protect crops during droughts or flooding.
Contour ploughing was practiced by the ancient Phoenicians, and is effective for slopes between two and ten percent.
Terracing is the practice of creating nearly level areas in a hillside area.Salt breaks down the soil structure, causing infertility and reduced growth.The ions responsible for salination are: sodium (Na Soil salinity adversely affects crop metabolism and erosion usually follows.The terraces form a series of steps, each at a higher level than the previous.Terraces are protected from erosion by other soil barriers.A sequel to the deforestation is typically large scale erosion, loss of soil nutrients and sometimes total desertification.Techniques for improved soil conservation include crop rotation, cover crops, conservation tillage and planted windbreaks, affect both erosion and fertility.Political and economic action is further required to solve the erosion problem.A simple governance hurdle concerns how we value the land and this can be changed by cultural adaptation.Salinity occurs on drylands from overirrigation and in areas with shallow saline water tables.Over-irrigation deposits salts in upper soil layers as a byproduct of soil infiltration; irrigation merely increases the rate of salt deposition.