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During operation, some part of the energy—depending on the electrical efficiency—is consumed in unintended output, such as waste heat.
The invention of the steam turbine in 1883 to drive the electric generator started a strong increase of world electricity consumption.
In 2008, the world total of electricity production was 20.279 petawatt-hours (PWh).
Many new nuclear plants will be constructed, mainly to replace old ones.
The nuclear part of electricity generation will increase from 11 to 12%. The IEA warns that in order to restrict global warming to 2 °C, the carbon dioxide emission sees world electricity consumption increasing to more than 40,000 TWh/a in 2040.
The International Energy Agency expects revision of subsidy for fossil fuel which amounted to 550 billion dollar in 2013, more than four times renewable energy subsidy.
In this scenario almost half of the increase in 2040 of electricity consumption is covered by more than 80% growth of renewable energy.
Nuclear and fossil generated electricity rose 3%, renewable electricity 12%.
A small part of the renewables, solar and wind electricity, increased much more, 46% In Brazil, wind power increased 140%, in China not only solar and wind increased fast, 81%, but also nuclear, 36%.
The difference of 3,464 TWh (17%) was consumed in the process of generating power and lost in transmission to end users.
A sensitivity analysis on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy network model for electric demand estimation shows that employment is the most critical factor influencing electrical consumption.