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Then, a minor premise states some particular data in our experience that come under that principle.Finally, the conclusion follows from applying the general principle to the particular case.Robert Barron explains by analogy that it seems impossible for a two-dimensional object to conceive of three-dimensional humans.
A common misconception is that theism is ancient while atheism is modern, but mankind has been making the same arguments for and against the existence of deities—including, with the rise of monotheism, God—since the dawn of human history.
Bronze Age texts such as the Vedas present various arguments against the deities, such as the problem of evil and the Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit, as well as arguments for the deities, such as argument from morality and Pascal's wager, without explaining the arguments themselves, implying that readers are familiar with them and that the arguments themselves were old by the Bronze Age.
Classical theists do not believe that God can be completely defined.
They believe it would contradict the transcendent nature of God for mere humans to define him.
Scientists follow the scientific method, within which theories must be verifiable by physical experiment.
The majority of prominent conceptions of God explicitly or effectively posit a being whose existence is not testable either by proof or disproof.In modern culture, the question of God's existence has been discussed by scientists such as Stephen Hawking, Francis Collins, Lawrence M.Krauss, Richard Dawkins, Carl Sagan, Neil de Grasse Tyson, John Lennox and Sam Harris, as well as philosophers including Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Lane Craig, Rebecca Goldstein, A. Grayling, Daniel Dennett, Edward Feser and David Bentley Hart.In monotheistic religions outside the Abrahamic traditions, the existence of God is discussed in similar terms.In these traditions, God is also identified as the author (either directly or by inspiration) of certain texts, or that certain texts describe specific historical events caused by the God in question or communications from God (whether in direct speech or via dreams or omens).For the purposes of discussion, Richard Dawkins described seven "milestones" on his spectrum of theistic probability: The Catholic Church, following the teachings of Paul the Apostle, Thomas Aquinas, and the First Vatican Council, affirms that God's existence "can be known with certainty from the created world by the natural light of human reason".In classical theism, God is characterized as the metaphysically ultimate being (the first, timeless, absolutely simple and sovereign being, who is devoid of any anthropomorphic qualities), in distinction to other conceptions such as theistic personalism, open theism, and process theism.Other arguments for the existence of God have been proposed by St.Anselm, who formulated the first ontological argument; Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Thomas Aquinas, who presented their own versions of the cosmological argument (the kalam argument and the first way, respectively); René Descartes, who said that the existence of a benevolent God is logically necessary for the evidence of the senses to be meaningful.In each case the conclusion is that God exists, but the premises of the different arguments are different.The arguments are like roads, from different starting points, all aiming at the same goal of God.