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Most of all, I would not have been able to accomplish my goals without the love, support and encouragement of Martha Townsend and the rest of my family. ii Contents Acknowledgments i Contents ii List of Figures vi 1 Introduction Motivation Performance Measurement of Interpreted Executions Performance Measurement of Application s with Multiple Execution Forms Summary of Results Organization of Dissertation Related Work Performance tools for interpreted and JIT compiled executions Traditional performance tools Tools that Map Performance Data to User s View of Program Tools that can See Inside the Kernel Tools that Expose Abstractions from User-Level Libraries Conclusions Describing Performance Data that Represent VM-AP Interactions Representing an Interpreted Execution Representing a Program Execution Representing the VM and AP Programs Representing Interacting Programs Representing Constrained Parts of Program Executions Active Resources and Constraint Functions Constraint Operators Properties of Constraint Operators Foci iii 3.3 Representing Performance Data from Interpreted Executions Using Foci to Constrain Performance Data Using Metrics to Constrain Performance Data Metric Functions for Interpreted Executions Combining Metrics with Foci from VM runs AP Performance Data Associated with Asynchronous Events Conclusions Paradyn-J: A Performance Tool for Measuring Interpreted Java Executions Paradyn-J s Implementation The Java Virtual Machine Parsing Java.class Files and Method Byte-codes Dynamic Instrumentation for VM Code Transformational Instrumentation for AP Code Java Interpreter-Specific Metrics Modifying the Performance Consultant to Search for Java Bottlenecks Transformational Instrumentation Costs Advantages and Disadvantages of Transformationa Instrumentation Performance Tuning Study of an Interpreted Java Application Conclusions Motivational Example Performance Measurement Study Discussion Describing Performance Data from Applications with Multiple Execution Forms Representing the Application s Multiple Execution Forms Representing Different Forms of an AP Code Object Resource Mapping Functions Representing Performance Data Representing Form-Dependent Performance Data Representing Form-Independent Performance Data Representing Transformational Costs Changes to Paradyn-J to Support Measuring Dynamically iv Compiled Java Executions Simulating Dynamic Compilation Modifications to Paradyn-J Performance Tuning Study of a Dynamically Compiled Java Application Our Performance Data and VM Developers Conclusions Lessons Learned from Paradyn-J s Implementation Issues Related to the Current Implementation of Paradyn-J Alternative Ways to Implement a Tool Based on Our Model Requirements for Implementing Our Model Implement as a Special Version of VM Using the JVMPI Interface Changes to JVMPI for a more Complete Implementation Conclusions Conclusion Thesis Summary Future Directions References vi List of Figures 1.1 Compiled application s execution vs.
To evaluate the impact of IPM on food security the difference-in-difference method (DD) was used.
The results indicate that 67 percent of IPM participants in Mwala and 75 percent of nonparticipants in Kangundo were food secure as they had attained the 2,250 Kcal threshold recommended by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS).
My graduate school friends have been a constant source of moral support, advice, and amusement.
In particular, I d like to thank Mary Tork-Roth, Bill Roth, Kurt Brown, Brad Richards, Holly Boaz, Mark Craven, Susan Goral, Susan Hert and Alain Kägi.
Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the leading tropical fruits grown in Kenya and is ranked third after banana and pineapples in terms of acreage and total production volume.I am indebted to the help and support I have received from Zhichen Xu, Ari Tamches, Vic Zandy, Bruce Irvin, Mark Callaghan, Marcelo Goncalves, Brian Wylie and all the other current and past members of the Paradyn project.A special thanks to Karen Karavanic who has been a supportive comrade at each step in this process.I am grateful for all that he has taught me, both as a researcher and as a teacher.I thank my committee members Marvin Solomon and Miron Livny for their time and effort spent reading my thesis, and for providing valuable criticisms and suggestions for improving my work.The study recommends that the government should promote IPM technology for the control of mango fruit fly as it is likely to improve the food security of smallholder farmers.Objective: To determine the ability of Intensive Care givers to accurately inflate endotracheai tube cuffs using standard syringe technique and estimate endotracheal tube cuff pressure by finger palpation o f the pilot balloon.I thank my entire committee, Marvin Solomon, Miron Livny, Mary Vernon, and Douglas Bates, for a lively and thorough discussion of my thesis work during my defense.I am grateful I had the opportunity to be a member of the Paradyn project, and in particular for the stimulating interactions with Paradyn project members.The OLS regression results show that the IPM technology had a positive impact on per capita calorie intake but not on the quality of food intake (HDDI) estimated by the poison regression.This suggests that farmers using IPM technology benefit from income gains, and higher incomes improve the economic availability to food but not food access.