, meaning "something put forth", and refers to an intellectual proposition.
"Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents.
Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic.
In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national, and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, and ISO 31 on quantities or units.
The structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, and the findings of the project.
Most world universities use a multiple chapter format : Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document.
The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree.
The term "thesis" is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work.