But suppose we divide the sample into two groups: innovative companies and non-innovative.
Now, within just the innovative group, we again look at the relationship between diversity and profitability. Similarly, if we just look at the non-innovative group, we might find no relationship between diversity and profitability there either.
They can also be more esoteric things like events (e.g., meetings), utterances, pairs of people, etc. For example, if the variable is age, we obviously recognize that people can be different ages.
Of course, sometimes, for a given sample of people, there might not be any variation on some attribute.
Not knowing what your real framework is can be a problem.
The framework tends to guide what you notice in an organization, and what you don't notice.A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out.A theoretical framework guides your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for.In other words, you don't even notice things that don't fit your framework!We can never completely get around this problem, but we can reduce the problem considerably by simply making our implicit framework explicit.For example, if we do a study to determine why some people are more satisfied in their jobs than others, job satisfaction is the dependent variable.The independent variables, also known as the predictor or explanatory variables, are the factors that you think explain variation in the dependent variable. For example, you may think that people are more satisfied with their jobs if they are given a lot of freedom to do what they want, and if they are well-paid.Surprisingly, theoretical frameworks are also important in exploratory studies, where you really don't know much about what is going on, and are trying to learn more.There are two reasons why theoretical frameworks are important here.Specifically, departments that already have a lot of women will favor female applicants, while departments with few women will favor male applicants.We can diagram this as follows: Actually, if that model is true, then this one is as well, though it's harder to think about: Whether sex of applicant is the independent and % women in dept is the moderator, or the other around, is not something we can ever decide.