Frandson Award for Literature in Continuing Higher Education, (2013) awarded by the University Professional Continuing Education Association, (UPCEA).
The trouble is, our brains are—in a word—lazy, says Kahneman.
We default to System 1, and only with effort power up System 2.
Only essay writing caused them to think critically—synthesizing, hypothesizing, and evaluating ideas. Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy.
Building on this evidence, a more recent study (Quitadamo & Kurtz, 2007) randomly assigned a group of 310 college biology students to either write a weekly analytical essay or be quizzed weekly on what they had learned.