Critical Thinking And Philosophy

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Hobbes adopted a naturalistic view of the world in which everything was to be explained by evidence and reasoning.

Locke defended a common sense analysis of everyday life and thought.

Neither accepted as necessarily rational that which was considered "normal" in their culture.

Both looked to the critical mind to open up new vistas of learning.

He articulated and defended the need in thinking for clarity and precision.

He developed a method of critical thought based on the , in which every domain of the present world was subject to critique.Among these scholars were Colet, Erasmus, and Moore in England. Francis Bacon, in England, was explicitly concerned with the way we misuse our minds in seeking knowledge.He recognized explicitly that the mind cannot safely be left to its natural tendencies.The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates 2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.Confused meanings, inadequate evidence, or self-contradictory beliefs often lurked beneath smooth but largely empty rhetoric.He also called attention to the fact that most people, if left to their own devices, develop bad habits of thought (which he called "idols") that lead them to believe what is false or misleading.He called attention to "Idols of the tribe" (the ways our mind naturally tends to trick itself), "Idols of the market-place" (the ways we misuse words), "Idols of the theater" (our tendency to become trapped in conventional systems of thought), and "Idols of the schools" (the problems in thinking when based on blind rules and poor instruction).In the Renaissance (15th and 16th Centuries), a flood of scholars in Europe began to think critically about religion, art, society, human nature, law, and freedom.They proceeded with the assumption that most of the domains of human life were in need of searching analysis and critique.He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.

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