From that time forward, there has been aggression toward the Jews (and Christians) from the Muslims because Muhammad labeled the Jews as “cursed” (Koran 4.46) and wanted his followers to “not take the Jews and the Christians for friends” (Koran 5.51).
(Note that the Koran is not written in chronological order but from longest chapter to shortest chapter.) The words Jew and Judaism come from the name Judah, one of the 12 sons of Israel.
So just because someone says they are Jewish doesn’t necessarily mean they hold to the tenets of Judaism.
However, for the sake of simplicity, when I say “Jew” in this chapter on Judaism, I mean those who hold to the religion of Judaism, unless the context warrants otherwise.
These types of seeds finally flourished into a version where man’s interpretations of the Old Testament (in the form of the Talmud’s Gemara) began to supersede the very Word of God.
It becomes a major problem when man’s ideas are elevated to be greater than the Word of God.
Judaism is a set of informal beliefs about the world and how people should live their lives.
Although Jewish beliefs vary, they can be summed up by medieval Jewish scholar Moshi ben Maimon’s (Maimonides) 13 articles: Take note that Christians easily agree with most of these points.
Judah was one of the larger tribes that became dominant as its own country when the nation of Israel split into two kingdoms.
The northern kingdom retained the name Israel (with 10 tribes), and the southern kingdom took the name Judah (with two tribes, one being Judah, naturally).