In Israel, bilingual education programs not only help both the Arabic-and Hebrew-speaking populations become bilingual, they also teach Hebrew to immigrants from around the world.
It may be implemented in different ways for majority and/or minority language populations, and there may be different educational and linguistic goals in different countries.
In Canada, immersion education programs are designed for native speakers of the majority language (English) to become proficient in a minority language (French), whereas heritage-language programs are implemented to assist native speakers of indigenous and immigrant languages become proficient in English.
Together, these five hypotheses provide a structure for, and an understanding of how to best design and implement, educational programs for language-minority students.
Krashen put his theory into practice with the creation of the natural approach and the gradual exit model, which are based on a second tenet of bilingual education–the concept of comprehensible input.
As World War I began, the language restrictionist movement gained momentum, and schools were given the responsibility of replacing immigrant languages and cultures with those of the United States.
Despite myths to the contrary, non-native English speakers neither learned English very quickly nor succeeded in all-English schools.
In other words, language teaching must be designed so that language can be acquired easily, and this is done by using delivery methods and levels of language that can be understood by the student.
It is estimated that between 60 and 75 percent of the world is bilingual, and bilingual education is a common educational approach used throughout the world.
Cummins also introduced the concept of the common underlying proficiency TABLE 1 model of bilingualism, which explains how concepts learned in one language can be transferred to another.
Cummins is best known for his distinction between basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP).