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APA Style is widely used by scholarly publishers in behavioural and social sciences.
APA Style also addresses general editorial issues and the preparation of manuscripts for publication.
For additional details, including acceptable abbreviations, version to cite, and order of references, refer to sections 6.22 to 6.25 of the APA Publication Manual (6 ed., pp. Agreement of text and Reference list: APA Style requires all sources cited in the text to be documented in the reference list, with the exception of personal communications such as unpublished letters, memoranda and informal electronic communications (APA 6.20); and, ancient classical works and religious texts numbered systematically across all editions (APA 6.18).
by Chuck Whether you’re proofreading a finished reference list or trying to cobble together a citation for a new or nonroutine communications format, understanding what information any reference should contain will help you in your task.
“Each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data—all the information necessary for unique identification and library search” (p. Another way to think of these building blocks, a mnemonic to use in your own construction and review of references, is to remember four interrogatories: Who? A few reference types require more: for instance, year followed by month for papers and poster sessions presented at conferences (, pp. When no year is available or can be ascertained by hook or by crook, this element is maintained by using the abbreviation n.d., for “no date” (p. The name of the edited book in which the chapter resides is not the “what” described here.
206–207), or year followed by month and day for newspaper articles (pp. If the item you are referencing does not have a formal title, APA style requires you to provide something to fill out this part of the reference.The is intended to be both explanatory and fairly comprehensive.Nonetheless, there is no way on earth it could set out examples for every possible type of reference.This guide is based on the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) that was published in 2009.This manual and selections from it are available in the Library; click the links below to view them in our catalogue.It ranges from the basic journal name, volume, and page span for journal articles to the online versions where that information is supplemented with a DOI or URL.A book chapter’s “where” can be quite involved, what with listing editor name(s), the book’s overall title, a page span, and publisher location and name.The DOI can generally be found on the first page of scholarly journal articles as well as in the database record for that article.If the DOI does not appear on the article or in the database record, it may be found by entering citation information into the free DOI Lookup on Cross References to books available online may dispense with the publisher information, replacing it with a DOI or URL.And books and journals are just the tip of the reference iceberg.