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Power Doppler ultrasonography can be used to document active enthesitis.
SI joint involvement is followed by involvement of the discovertebral, apophyseal, costovertebral, and costotransverse joints and the paravertebral ligaments.
Early lesions include subchondral granulation tissue that erodes the joint and is replaced gradually by fibrocartilage and then ossification.
Patients often have a family history of either AS or another spondyloarthropathy.
The diagnosis of AS is generally made by combining clinical criteria of inflammatory back pain and enthesitis or arthritis with radiological findings.
Symptoms include pain, lacrimation, photophobia, and blurred vision.
Cardiac involvement including aortic insufficiency and conduction defects is generally a late finding and is rare.
Thus, they may play an important role cells in the pathogenesis of AS and other spondyloarthropathies.
Another possible mechanism in the induction of AS is presentation of an arthritogenic peptide from enteric bacteria by specific HLA molecules.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning of the SI joints, spine, and peripheral joints may reveal evidence of early sacroiliitis, erosions, and enthesitis that are not apparent on standard radiographs.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, multisystem inflammatory disorder primarily involving the sacroiliac (SI) joints and the axial skeleton.