who had collaborated previously in a biomechanical analysis of the shoulder, directed this program, which began by using the latest technology to refine and add to the existing knowledge of human locomotion.
A concurrent program was initiated under Taylor in the Engineering School at the University of California at Los Angeles on the function of the upper limbs. New York University was engaged in 1947 to evaluate the devices that resulted from the research and development program.
Committee on Artificial Limbs, National Research Council: Terminal Research Reports on Artificial Limbs (Covering the Period From April 1, 1945, Through June 30, 1947). At the same time design and development projects were being carried out at Northrop Aviation, Inc.; Cat-ranis, Inc.; the Army Prosthetics Research Laboratory (APRL); the U. Naval Hospital, Mare Island (which later became the Navy Prosthetics Research Laboratory, Oakland Naval Hospital); and a U. The Veterans Administrations laboratory in New York also performed evaluations primarily by means of mechanical and chemical testing projects; later this laboratory became part of the Veterans Administration Prosthetics Center (VAPC), which contributed heavily to development and evaluation projects established within the program.
Although progress was made with new devices and substitutions of materials, more significant advances were in the areas of socket design and alignment of the various types of prostheses.
and transpelvic (hemipelvectomy) amputees were developed by Mc Laurin and his associates while working at Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, under the auspices of the Department of Veterans Affairs of Canada.
Thus a body of knowledge of management of ankle and hip disarticulation (and transpelvic) amputees was developed and then disseminated to clinicians through a formal education program.Each major war seems to have been the stimulus not only for improvement of amputation surgical techniques but also for the development of improved prostheses.Toward the end of World War II, amputees in military hospitals in the United States began voicing their disappointment about the performance afforded by their artificial limbs.On June 30, 1947, the CAL was discharged, and the role of the NAS became an advisory one to the Veterans Administration, which contracted directly with various research groups.In 1947, the Veterans Administration also established its own testing and development laboratory in New York City.Eberhart et al., Eberhart HD, Inman VT, Dec JB, et al: Fundamental Studies of Human Locomotion and Other Information Relating to the Design of Artificial Limbs, a Report to the National Research Council.Berkeley, Calif, Committee on Artificial Limbs, University of California, 1947.Artificial hands made of iron were used by knights in the 15th century.The Alt-Ruppin hand, shown along with other hands from the 15th century in the Stibbert Museum, Florence, Italy, is a good example of the work of that age.To ensure that they received the best care possible, Surgeon General of the Army Norman T.Kirk, an orthopaedic surgeon by training, turned to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for advice.