Non Sequitur Latin for "it does not follow." An inference or a conclusion that does not follow from the premises,evidence or reasoning given prior.Ad Hominem Latin meaning "against the man." In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.
Appeal to Authority Trying to persuade a reader to accept an argument based on the respect for authority rather than logic.
False Dichotomy "either or" Reducing an argument to only two extreme options when there are other possibilities.
Post Hoc Latin for "after this, therefore because of this." Arguing that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
Though most teachers aspire to make critical thinking a primary objective of their instruction, most also do not realize that, to develop as thinkers, students must pass through stages of development in critical thinking.
Inductive reasoning: If the reasons are true then it is likely that the conclusion is true.
Often there s a lot of evidence in arguments to support reasons which support conclusion.
Appeal to History "If something has happened before, it will happen again." Arguing that what has happened in the past is always a guide to the future and/or the past will repeat itself.
Appeal to Emotion "These poor puppies have been abandoned and you could give them the loving home they so desperately need." Arguing through tugging at peoples emotions rather than through logical reasoning/argument.
·Interview context – People respond differently to different interviewers.
·Linguistic context – Language can affect the type of answers people give. Neutrality – How impartial a source of information is (biased or not). Vested Interest – When a person or organisation have something to gain from supporting a point of view. Expertise – Where the writer of information has specialist subject knowledge in a particular area. Reputation – The regard in which a person of organisation is held in, based on their track record and their status. Observation – A report from someone who directly perceived (heard, saw, felt) an event – an eyewitness account. Circumstantial evidence - Physical evidence supporting the conclusion. Corroboration – Where more than one source of evidence supports the same conclusion. Selectivity – A measure of how representative information is compared with all of the information available. Context – The situation in which information is collected.